Double taxation is a tax principle that refers to income tax paid twice on the same source of income. This can happen when income is taxed at both the business and personal level. Double taxation also occurs in international trade or investment when the same income is taxed in two different countries. This can happen with 401k loans. Double taxation treaties (DTAs) are agreements between two or more countries aimed at avoiding international double taxation of income and assets. The main objective of the Commission was to distribute the right to tax among the contracting countries, to avoid disputes, to ensure equal rights and security for taxpayers and to prevent tax evasion. India has concluded a comprehensive double taxation agreement with 88 countries, 85 of which have entered into force.  This means that certain types of income generated in one country for a tax resident of another country are subject to agreed tax rates and jurisdictions. According to the Income Tax Act of India 1961, there are two provisions, Section 90 and Section 91, which provide specific relief to taxpayers to protect them from double taxation.
Article 90 (bilateral relief) is for taxpayers who have paid tax to a country with which India has signed double taxation treaties, while Article 91 (unilateral relief) provides benefits for taxpayers who have paid taxes to a country with which India has not signed an agreement. Thus, India relieves both types of taxpayers. Prices vary from country to country. The Indo-Singapore double taxation treaty currently provides for territorial taxation of capital gains on shares of a company. The Third Protocol amends the Agreement with effect from 1 April 2017 to provide for withholding tax on capital gains from the transfer of shares in a company. This will reduce income losses, avoid double taxation and streamline the flow of investment. In order to provide certainty to investors, equity investments made prior to 1 April 2017 have been subject to compliance with the conditions of the benefit-restricting clause under the 2005 Protocol. In addition, a two-year transition period from 1 April 2017 to 31 April 2017 has been extended.
March 2019, in which capital gains from home country shares will be taxed at half the normal tax rate, subject to compliance with the conditions of the benefit limit clause. The United States has tax treaties with a number of countries. Under these contracts, residents (not necessarily citizens) of other countries are taxed at a reduced rate or are exempt from U.S. tax on certain items of income they receive from U.S. sources. These reduced rates and tax exemptions vary by country and by specific income items. Under the same conventions, U.S. residents or citizens are taxed at a reduced rate or are exempt from foreign taxes on certain items of income they receive from foreign sources. Most income tax treaties include a so-called “savings clause” that prevents a U.S. citizen or resident from using the provisions of a tax treaty to avoid taxing income withheld in the United States.
If the contract does not cover a certain type of income, or if there is no contract between your country and the United States, you will have to pay income taxes in the same manner and at the same rates specified in the instructions for the applicable U.S. tax return. Many individual states in the United States tax revenue received in their states. Therefore, you should contact the tax authorities of the state from which you earn income to find out if any of your income is subject to state tax. Some U.S. states do not comply with tax treaty provisions. This page contains links to tax treaties between the United States and certain countries. More information on tax treaties is also available on the Department of Finance`s Tax Treaty Documents page.
See Table 3 of the tax treaty tables for the general date of entry into force of each agreement and protocol. Almost all tax treaties offer a specific mechanism to eliminate them, but the risk of double taxation is still potentially present. This mechanism generally requires each country to grant a credit for the taxes of the other country in order to reduce the taxes of a resident of the country. In the treaty between the United States and India, according to the DTAA, if interest income accumulates in India and the amount belongs to a U.S. citizen, that amount is taxable in the United States. However, this interest may be taxable in India under the Indian Income Tax Act.  The contract may or may not provide mechanisms to limit this credit, and may or may not restrict the use of local legal mechanisms to do the same.  A 2013 study by Business Europe indicates that double taxation remains a problem for European multinationals and a barrier to cross-border trade and investment.   Problem areas include limiting interest deductibility, foreign tax credits, permanent establishment issues, and divergent qualifications or interpretations.